Titus 2:13 - ECW

Steven Avery

Administrator
.
Titus 2:13 (AV-PCE)
Looking for that blessed hope,
and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;


This is the only Granville Sharp verse that has significant support for an identity translation. However, even for this verse, not in the Ante-Nicene era, only around 400 AD, when the interpretations are mixed.

For the early writers, there are two that are referenced, both Greek:

Clement of Alexandria


Hippolytus


The supposition of Wordsworth and Wace that Ignatius (Eph. c. i) refers to this passage has, so far as I can see, no foundation. - Ezra Abbot, below

The first Ante-Nicene reference is :

Exhortation to Abandon the Impious Mysteries of Idolatry for the Adoration of the Divine Word and God the Father.
Clement of Alexandria
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.ii.i.html

This Word, then, the Christ, the cause of both our being at first (for He was in God) and of our well-being, this very Word has now appeared as man, He alone being both, both God and man—the Author of all blessings to us; by whom we, being taught to live well, are sent on our way to life eternal. For, according to that inspired apostle of the Lord, “the grace of God which bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, teaching us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; looking for the blessed hope, and appearing of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.”

This is the New Song, the manifestation of the Word that was in the beginning, and before the beginning. The Saviour, who existed before, has in recent days appeared. He, who is in Him that truly is, has appeared; for the Word, who “was with God,” and by whom all things were created, has appeared as our Teacher. The Word, who in the beginning bestowed on us life as Creator when He formed us, taught us to live well when He appeared as our Teacher; that as God He might afterwards conduct us to the life which never ends.

The translation itself looks to be done straight-arrow, sans GSR rigging. You can find other translations like this one from Edward Burton that go the GSR way, at least Burton informs you that it was his translation decision, not impelled by the text.

Testimonies of the Ante-Nicene Fathers to the Divinity of Christ (1829)
Edward Burton
http://books.google.com/books?id=Px9AAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA112
... looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.

Ezra Abbot pointed out that there is no reason to see Clement taking the verse in the identity fashion.

On the construction of Titus ii. 13 (1881)
Ezra Abbot
http://books.google.com/books?id=830FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA7

(e) Bishop Ellicott's last argument is that "apparently two of the ante-Nicene (Clem. Alexand. Protrept. 7 [ed. Pott.] and Hippolytus quoted by Words.) and the great bulk of post-Nicene writers concurred in this interpretation." -

As to this, I would say that Clement of Alexandria does not cite the passage in proof of the deity of Christ, and there is nothing to show that he adopted the construction which refers the τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ to him.

=======================================

The second Ante-Nicene reference is :


Hippolytus of Rome
Treatise on Christ and Antichrist
http://books.google.com/books?id=aDcMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA219
http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/hippolytus-christ.html

These things, then, I have set shortly before thee, O Theophilus, drawing them from Scripture itself, in order that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating the things that are to be, thou mayest keep thyself void of offence both toward God and toward men, "looking for that blessed hope and appearing of our God and Saviour," when, having raised the saints among us, He will rejoice with them, glorifying the Father. To Him be the glory unto the endless ages of the ages. Amen.

The GSR apologists apparently quote this ending with Saviour, not following through to "glorifying the Father". Ezra Abbot dealt with this question in his article on Titus 2:13:

Again, Ezra Abbot, from the page above, is spot-on.

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James White Bogus Claim


Granville Sharp's Rule
Titus 2:13 and 2 Peter 1:1
http://vintage.aomin.org/GRANVILL.html

"Granville Sharp correctly identified a rule of grammar that the ancient koine Greek writers faithfully followed"

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Conclusion - Ante-Nicene ECW and Titus 2:13

The final result is that there is no real indication that any Ante-Nicene writers understood Titus 2:13 as an identity translation, nor was it used in that matter in Ante-Nicene Christology exposition and apologetics.

You can simply carefully read the two passages in context and see that Ezra Abbot was correct in his dismissal of claims that there was support for the identity translation. It is also worthwhile to mention that due to the Sabellian controversies being a major factor in the Ante-Nicene era, the silence and non-use of the verse by so many writers is an indication that there was no tendency toward an identity translation understanding.

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Psalm 119:140

Thy word is very pure:
therefore thy servant loveth it.

=========================================

Steven Avery
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
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Steven Avery

Administrator
Tyndale, Geneva, AV-1611 and AV today

From a CARM discussion:
https://forums.carm.org/vb5/forum/theology/general-christian-topics/biblical-languages/4761905-a-trinitological-catalog?p=4940171#post4940171

"...the verse as it was understood by the learned men of the Reformation Bible era"

Tyndale Bible 1525
"lokyng for that blessed hope and glorious apperenge of the myghty God, and of oure savioure Jesu Christ."

Geneva 1560
Loking for the blessed hope, and appearyng of the glorie of the mightie God, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ.

AV - 1611
Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God, and our Sauiour Iesus Christ,
http://sceti.library.upenn.edu/sceti...ePosition=1456

AV - PCE
Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
=============

New testament octapla (1962)
https://archive.org/stream/newtestam.../1220/mode/2up
 

Steven Avery

Administrator
Here is Chrysostom, notice there is not any diversion to "Jesus is God".

The Homilies of S. John Chrysostom: Archbishop of Constantinople, on the Epistles of St. Paul the Apostle to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon (1843)
https://books.google.com/books?id=gT1MAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA311
1636276314400.png


P. 314 is probably the most critical page. The editor is translating through Middleton (who supported Sharp on this verse.) Chrysostom is interesting, but he does not say that the verse is identity.
 
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Brianrw

Member

John Chrysostom (347-407)​

Here is Chrysostom, notice there is not any diversion to "Jesus is God".
There actually is, you must not have read far enough. In his 5th Homily on Titus (from which is the snippet above) he goes on to write,

"Looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Saviour."
Where are those who say that the Son is inferior to the Father?

In addition, Chrysostom utilizes Romans 9:5, Ephesians 5:5, Titus 2:13, and John 1:1 to proclaim the Deity of Christ:

And Paul said: "from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all things, God blessed forever, Amen." And again: "No fornicator or covetous one has an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God." And still again: "through the appearance of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ." And John calls him by the same name of God when he says: "in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God; and the Word was God." (On the Incomprehensible Nature of God, 5.2)

And against the Arians, he produces Titus 2:13 to defend the Deity of Christ against the Arians in his Commentary on Philippians 2:

"But the Son, he [Arius] says, is little. But it is thou that sayest this, for the Scripture says the contrary: as of the Father, so it speaks of the Son; for listen to Paul, saying, "Looking for that blessed hope, and appearing of the glory of our great God" . . . How then do you speak of small and great?
 

Steven Avery

Administrator
In addition, Chrysostom utilizes Romans 9:5, Ephesians 5:5, Titus 2:13, and John 1:1 to proclaim the Deity of Christ:

And Paul said: "from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all things, God blessed forever, Amen." And again: "No fornicator or covetous one has an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God." And still again: "through the appearance of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ." And John calls him by the same name of God when he says: "in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God; and the Word was God." (On the Incomprehensible Nature of God, 5.2)

This note says there is a textual issue in this Chrysostom quote, and "of our great God" is not in the English texts of Chrysostom.

And I notice you did not give a url, again I will conjecture this was a deliberate omission.

On the Incomprehensible Nature of God (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 72) (2010)
Paul W. Harkins
https://books.google.com/books?id=sJ1ZMYr7NAwC&pg=PA145&lpg=PA145

1637314408445.png



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ACCS , edited by Timothy Oden, puts in the quote without mentioning the textual issues.
https://books.google.com/books?id=dcZcAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA300

It would be good cross-ref the Homily VIII.22 and see if is covered so far by the ones on this page.
 
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Brianrw

Member
This note says there is a textual issue in this Chrysostom quote, and "of our great God" is not in the English texts of Chrysostom.

And I notice you did not give a url, again I will conjecture this was a deliberate omission.
That note was not in the source I used, otherwise I would have left a this note: The editor notes the words "of our Great God" are omitted in Aland's edition and translations made from it. The context however seems to evidence a textual corruption in the omission of the words, either in Aland's text or the manuscripts utilized for it. Evidence of this is as follows:
  1. Chrysostom is listing this among passages supporting the statement, "Come, and let me show you how the Son is called God," (5.15) every other verse of which has a distinct mention of Christ as "God."

  2. After quoting it, Chrysostom writes that in Ephesians 5:5, Christ is called by "the same name of God," though "God" is missing in the prior quotation.

  3. The other two statements of Chrysostom where the words are indeed quoted to testify of Christ's Deity reinforce this point and are clear.
Thank you for noting this. I will look into it further.
 
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