breathings - chronology of scholarship (may include small letters, indentation on first letter, accents, coptic mu, omega etc)

Steven Avery

Scrivener - major blunder of omission, working off the Tischendorf facsimile and information

A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticus with the Received Text of the New Testament (1864)

P. xxii

p. xxiii


p. xxiv

p. xxv
p. xiii


p. lxi
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Steven Avery

b-greek had a short discussion with about 4 posts

The Gospel of Mark in Codex Sinaiticus: Textual and Reception-Historical Considerations - on these li
Peter Head (2008)

The Early Text of the New Testament - (2012)

Charles E. Hill, Michael J. Kruger

The Earliest Corrections in Codex Sinaiticus: Further Evidence from the Apocalypse - Revelation - (2015)
Peter Malik
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Steven Avery

656 breathings upsilon (u) with hard breathings

713 iota (I) has many - like in third column of the Galatians page

checking epsilon (e)

omnicron (circular o) like a o

omega (long o) rounded w


theta - consonant space ship

were they in the Tischendorf fac-simile
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Steven Avery

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Steven Avery

Hilgenfeld makes linguistic arguments .. goes with Donaldson etc., but in NT not Hermas or Barnabas
( p. 074-081 - Hilgenfeld )-
Tischendorf 202-210
( Hilgenfeld 211-219 )
( Tobler 351-366 )
( Buttmann 367-395 )

p. 75
Der Barbarismus ist so gross, dass man wirklich schon den Eindruck der sinkenden Gracitat erhält und wohl Mönche des erst um 530 gestifteten gestisteten Klosters auf Sinai als die Schreiber anzunehmen hat1)-

The barbarism is so great that one really already gets the impression of the declining Gracitat and probably monks of the founded monastery on Sinai, which was only founded around 530, have to be assumed as the scribes1)-

Matthew 20:33


p. 77 colophon

p. 76 - 22+2 Latinism?

chischen wenig kundigen Kalligraphen utis dein 4. Jahrhun-
dert herruhren (p. XXXV sq.)? Der Barbarisinus ist so gross,
dass man wirklich sclion den Eindruck der sinkenden Griicitat
erhait und wohl Monche des erst mn 530 gestifleten Klosters
anf Sinai als die Sehreiber anzunehinen hat1). Die Sache


p. 77 - Claromontanus
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Steven Avery

p. 212 Hilgenfeld second pass on linguistic issues

4. Jahrhunderts seien ?

Der Barbarismus der Aussprache und Schreibart, welchen die biblischen Handschriften doch nicht vor gleichzeitigen Handschriften der Klassiker voraus haben dürfen, kann am Ende auch für die Paläographie zu einem sicherem Wegweiser werden. -Montfaucon hat noch lange nicht so viele Uncial-Handschriften untersucht, alsTischendorf, aber schwerlich ohne allen Grund in seiner Palaeographia graeca p. 230 von einer Hs. des 8. Jahrh. bemerkt:

(Latin) Ibi perpetua vocalium commutatio occurrit, nempe (Greek tov i in t], et vicissim tov v in o<; st in i etc.), quss ism in marmoribus et libris antiquioribus, sed rarius observavimus 1). Und dieses Unheil des alten Palaographen trifft merkwürdig zusammen mit dem Urlheile eines namhaften Philologen 2).


The barbarism of pronunciation and writing, which the biblical manuscripts must not have ahead of contemporary manuscripts of the classics, can ultimately also become a sure signpost for palaeography. -Montfaucon has not yet examined as many Uncial manuscripts as Tischendorf, but hardly without any reason in his Palaeographia graeca p. 230 from an 8th century MS. noted::

There occurs a continuous exchange of vowels, namely (Greek) which ism in ancient marbles and books, but we have rarely observed
1). And this misfortune of the old palaographer strangely coincides with the misfortune of a well-known philologist 2).-





Steven Avery

Hilgenfeld was following

Palæographia Graeca, sive De ortu et progressu literarum Graecarum, et de variis omnium saeculorum scriptionis Graecae generibus: itemque de abbreviationibus & de notis variarum artium ac disciplinarum. Additis figuris & schematibus ad fidem manuscriptorum codicum. Opera & studio D. Bernardi de Montfaucon ..


Codex Colbertino (Colbertinus)
Distintio autem illa a SS. Patribus invecta , sunt Evangelia atque libri novi Teftamenti per ordinem disposita & divisa, ut per totum annum, secundum temporum & solemnitatum rationem, in Ecclesia recitentur, cum inflexionibus vocum, quae certis signis & apicibus notantur in hoc Codice, ut videas in specimine. Codex est forma penitus quadra, ut conspicere licet: nam totam paginam delineavimus. Ibi perpetua vocalium commutatio occurrit, nempe (Greek) quas jam in marmoribus & libris antiquioribus, sed rarius observavimus:

Codex Colbertino (Colbertinus)
And that distinction from SS. Brought to the fathers, the Gospels and the books of the new Testament are arranged and divided in order, so that they may be recited in the Church throughout the year, according to the seasons and solemnities, with the inflections of the words, which are marked by certain signs and tips in this Code, as you may see in the specimen. The code is completely square, as you can see: for we have drawn the whole page. There occurs a continuous exchange of vowels, namely (Greek), which we have already observed in older marbles and books, but more rarely:

We have attached the letters of the alphabet that did not occur in the sample. An example will be set in this way by the common types.

Alphabeti literas, qusr in specimine non occurrebant, subjunximus. Exemplum hoc modo vulgaribus typis seribitur.


an Evangeliarium (Colbert 700.

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Steven Avery

Indentation - Outdent

Just as Mr. Scrivener has described Alexandrinus on his blog, we see the first letters of paragraphs fully 'outdented' into the margin, and enlarged! What is Scribe A doing? He finishes this page and also the whole last folio of the Quire (76) in the same format (this shows by the way that the text was written Quire by Quire: the next Quire begins again with the expected 'regular' style).

Other Examples:

What other manuscripts also exhibit this similar and quite unique style of "outdenting"?

Codex Φ (Beratinus, GA-043) from the 6th century also displays the same style, with marginal notes placed around the Outdented Letters in the very same way:

Steven Avery

Breathings - 1938
Milne and Skeat

p. 17
breathings and accent in verso col. iii are by a very late hand

p. 36

Furthermore the cessation of the paragraphi in Matthew (p. 37) at exactly the same place as the original Eusebian numeration makes it practically certain that all these additions were part of A’s grandiose but quickly abandoned scheme for the embellishment of the manuscript.

p. 37

p. 45
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Steven Avery



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Steven Avery


This, which mentions the linguistics above, is his ONLY reference to accents and breathings.

p. 138
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Steven Avery

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Steven Avery

Peter Malik
The Earliest Corrections in Codex Sinaiticus Further Evidence from the Apocalypse1(2015)

I would like to thank Peter M. Head, James R. Royse, Juan Hernández Jr., Elijah Hixson, and the anonymous reviewer for reading through the initial draft of this article and providing many helpful comments and corrections.

Thus, even though another exemplar has been spotted in various other NT portions of Sinaiticus,55 we must conclude that Revelation lacks any convincing positive evidence in that direction.56 Such absence is in itself telling and, coupled with the absence of a later review of this portion, raises important questions regarding the workings of our scribes in the
production of the manuscript. Could it be that the subsequent review was conducted not upon the transcription of the entire manuscript (or the entire NT portion), but rather sequentially, upon completion of each book (or corpus)? If so, why then was the book of Revelation never subjected to such an inspection? Did the scribe(s) give up on scrutinising the manuscript in its final stages of production?57

55 See Jongkind, Scribal Habits, 203–4, 222, who suspected the use of another exemplar in Luke and Paul, and Malik, “Earliest Corrections in Codex Sinaiticus,” 252, for further evidence from Mark. See also A. Myshrall, “Codex Sinaiticus, its Correctors, and the Caesarean Text of the Gospels” (Ph.D. diss., University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2005), 702.

56 As it is, the use of another exemplar can be substantiated only when both initial and corrected readings have significant textual support, when the original reading cannot be construed as a scribal error on palaeographical grounds, and when there is sufficient cumulative evidence for it throughout the manuscript (or its respective portions). See Royse, Scribal Habits, 79

57. Interestingly, Milne and Skeat, Scribes and Correctors, 36-37, postulate scribe As “grandiose but quickly abandoned scheme for the embellishment of the manuscript” (26), a scheme which he gave up early on in Matthew, as evidenced from the cessation of Eusebian enumeration, paragraphi, markings of OT quotations, and accents and breathings. It would be interesting to see if there are any other, perhaps more subtle, traces of gradual deterioration of editorial performance. See Hernandez, Scribal Habits, 95, who contemplates a possibility that the “MS was sent out without being proofread.” As noted above, there is sufficient evidence from other portions of Sinaiticus that some “proofreading” did in fact take place, but he is correct (as it seems) in observing that, in Revelation, such evidence is lacking.


Peter Malik, “Earliest Corrections in Codex Sinaiticus,” 252,

p. 250
2.2.3. Later correction stage: corrections of scribal errors The corrections discussed here come, along with the corrections to another Vorlage, from the later inspection of the manuscript. These corrections do not alter original readings toward another Vorlage, but merely amend scribal errors, whether textually significant or not. In any event, I was able to assign the scribe to all but two (Mark 4:30; 7:15) of the corrections with varying degrees of certainty. With exception of two readings, perhaps three (Mark 6:7b-8; 9:50; 7:15?), all later corrections of slips come from the original hand. It appears that Scribe A used the same exemplar for both copying and correcting the Gospel. There is only one later correction that Scribe D made on his cancel-leaves. Moreover, Scribe D corrected two slips of Scribe A. In addition, one important “correction” by Scribe D, which comes from this stage and which cannot be documented in a statistical form, is the production of cancel-leaves, most likely as a result of some grave error committed by Scribe A therein.152

152 See Milne and Skeat, Scribes and Correctors , 9-11; Jongkind, Scribal Habits, 44-46

p. 252
An especially interesting correction is at 13:3, where we appear to have a singular reading that had not been created by the scribe. The pattern of textual affinities is not as straightforward as one would wish, yet the agreement with Codex Vaticanus in all five instances is noteworthy indeed. In four of these corrections, Codex Bezae sides with Codex Vaticanus, except for Mark 14:42. It would be particularly interesting to conduct a detailed study of Scribe D’s cancel-leaves to see if any closer textual relationship with Vaticanus could be detected.158 As it is, there does not seem to be any clear reason why these particular readings were corrected toward another Vorlage and not others; somewhat cursory and inconsistent nature of Scribe D’s correcting activity may also reflect the random nature of the selection.


Would like to connect the five corrections and check the apparatus.
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