tres unum sint variant

Steven Avery


He hasn't even addressed the "sint" variant that turns up in his old Victorian, or pre-Victorian, Tertullian Adversus Praxean Chapter 25 commentators.

Which changes the sense of the Tertullian's words, from "they/these are", to "they/these might be" and all the flow on implications that has.


John 17:11 Vulgate

"et iam non sum in mundo, et hii in mundo sunt, et ego ad te venio, Pater sancte, serva eos in nomine tuo quos dedisti mihi, ut sint unum sicut et nos."

“I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, watch over them on account of your own name, which you have given me, so that they may be one just as we are one.”

John 17:21 Vulgate

"ut omnes unum sint, sicut tu Pater in me et ego in te ut et ipsi in nobis unum sint ut mundus credat quia tu me misisti."

"so that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me and I am in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you sent me”.

Chapter 25.1
“Ita connexus Patris in Filio et Filii in Paracleto tres efficit cohaerentes alterum ex altero. Qui tres unum sunt [Var. “sint” in some other printed texts], non unus, quomodo dictum est, 'Ego et Pater unum sumus,' ad substantiae unitatem non ad numeri singularitatem.”
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Steven Avery

... it is also thought by some that Tertullian's "qui tres unum sunt" (or "qui tres sint" variant text), which is still identical in both verses 7 and 8 in the Latin Comma-inclusive manuscripts, is simply his personal eis-egetical comments/phraseology derived from John 10:30 and applied to his personal theological concept of one shared substance and three Latin "personae" (compare Hebrews 9:24 τῷ προσώπῳ τοῦ θεοῦ and the Vetus Latina/Old Itala text "persona" or "personae", Sabatia 1571).

You cannot separate the Montanist interpretation of the substance in Chapter 8 from the same inseparably connected interpretation of "the substance" in Chapter 25 (which is exactly what Tertullian's words "qui tres unum sunt [Variant "sint"]" is explaining).


Steven Avery


Against Praxeas - however, most have sunt

Cyprian - Ad Jubaianum

Alcuin of York - Commentary on the Apocylpse of John
Latin: Qui est testis fidelis primogenitus mortuorum, et princeps regum terrae. Manifesto genere
locutionis Christum dicit, specialiter testem fidelem, cum tres sint qui testimonium dant, Pater, et
Filius, et Spiritus sanctus, et tres unus Deus sunt

p. 61
104 Paschasius Radbertus, Expositio in Psalmum XLIV, CCCM 94:47: “Sic itaque ait [Iohannes]
apostolus quod tres sint

Steven Avery