The Elements of Typographic Style - Robert Bringhurst - Robin Phillips "almost miraculously" - Michael Langlois - Antonios Sigalas

Steven Avery

This is an unusual small section from p. 174-175 (mentioned in Wikipedia.)


Also less sophisticated

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Steven Avery


[11] Bringhurst, Robert (2004). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 3.0), pp. 174–75. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks.

Each rectangular page has the proportions 1.1 to 1, while the block of text has the reciprocal proportions, 0.91 (the same proportions, rotated 90°). If the gutters between the columns were removed, the text block would mirror the page’s proportions. Typographer Robert Bringhurst referred to the codex as a “subtle piece of craftsmanship.”[11]


Sidney J. Berger review
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Steven Avery

Robin Phillips

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The Guild of Bezalel
The Discovery of Codex Sinaiticus (2019)
Robin Phillips

On this day in 1859, German scholar Constantin von Tischendorf, nearing the end of his third visit in 15 years to the remote Saint Catherine’s Monastery at the foot of (the reputed) Mt. Sinai, was invited to sit down for a drink with a young monk (the monastery’s steward) in his cell. Von Tischendorf showed the monk a copy of his translation of the Septuagint, published in Leipzig a few years earlier. (The Septuagint is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament that was produced in Alexandria, Egypt during the third and second centuries BC, under the direction of 70 – Latin septuaginta – Jewish Scholars. When New Testament authors quote the Old Testament Scriptures, they are usually quoting from the Septuagint, which is typically annotated in study Bibles as LXX.) The monk replied that he too had a copy of the Septuagint, and after retreating to the closet of his cell, brought forth an ancient codex (a manuscript bound in book form, as opposed to a rolled scroll) wrapped in a red cloth.

The codex in fact contained a complete copy of the New Testament in addition to most of the Old Testament in Greek (though portions were missing, because the monks had periodically used pages from the codex as kindling, as von Tischendorf had already discovered, to his horror, on one of his previous visits) as well as copies of some extra-biblical manuscripts, some of which were previously known only in Latin translations (The Epistle of Barnabas) or in name only (The Shepherd of Hermas). This mid-fourth century AD manuscript, which became known as Codex Sinaiticus, is still the oldest known manuscript of the complete New Testament in existence.

Von Tischendorf, being permitted to freely peruse the manuscript that evening, his last in the monastery, stayed up all night reading it. He recorded in his diary – kept in Latin, like a true scholar – “quippe dormire nefas videbatur – needless to say, to sleep seemed like a crime.” After much diplomatic wrangling, the manuscript was allowed to leave the monastery for study and copying. Today portions of the Codex reside in various places: Leipzig University, The British Library, and the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg. In 1975, during restoration work at the monastery, a forgotten room was discovered below a chapel in which were found many parchment fragments and 12 additional complete leaves of the Codex Sinaiticus, which remain at the monastery.

In addition to its importance as an early biblical manuscript, it is also an outstanding example of scribal craftsmanship, as Robert Bringhurst has pointed out. The text is written with a very even hand in resplendent Greek uncial script, arranged in four narrow columns on each page. Careful analysis of the proportions used in the layout reveal a scheme of exceptional cleverness and subtlety – just the kind of game that scribes, typographers, and designers at the height of their craft have enjoyed playing for millennia. The four columns considered as a complete text block express the reciprocal proportions of the surrounding page (that is, they are in the same proportions, but rotated 90 degrees). But, almost miraculously, if one were to remove the gutters between the columns, the entire textblock would collapse into a rectangle in unison with the page itself (same proportions, in the same orientation, just at a smaller size)!
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Steven Avery

With these types of amazing scholars, we may want to circle back to some key spots from our Bulgarian! Borislav Borisov, including the two critics who need solid answers!

Steven Avery

The latinisation of greek typographical characters (GR) [complete version]
Tatiana Marza


Σιγάλας, A. 1974· “Ιστορία της ελληνικής γραφής”. Β' έκδ. Θεσσαλονίκη: Κέντρον Βυζαντινών Ερευνών
Antoniou Sigala, History of Greek Scripture. Macedonian, 17(1), 464–465.
1934ιστορία-της-ελληνικής-γραφής"Αντωνίου Σιγάλα,"&f=false

Bringhurst, R. 2008. “Στοιχεία της τυπογραφικής τέχνης”. Μετάφραση Ματθιόπουλος Γ. Δ., Β’ έκδ. Ηράκλειο: Πανεπιστημιακές εκδόσεις Κρήτης

’Αντωνίου ΣιγΑλα
Antônios Sigalas (1890-1981)

Δείγμα αυτής της γραφής αποτελεί ο Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας (Codes Sinaiticus) που χρονολογείται στα μέσα του 4ου αιώνα μ.Χ. (εικόνα 15). Το κείμενο είναι γραμμένο σε κεφαλαιογράμ- ματη τετραγωνισμένη ελληνική γραφή, δεν περιέχει σημεία στίξης και κενά μεταξύ των λέξεων (Codex Sinaiticus). Το φάρδος των γραμμάτων είναι σχεδόν όσο και το ύψος τους και υπάρχει έντονη αντίθεση ανάμεσα στις κάθετες και τις οριζόντιες γραμμές - γεγονός που αποδεικνύει ότι η μύτη του καλαμιού δεν ήταν υπό γωνιακή κλίση στην επιφάνεια γραφής. (Σιγάλας, 1974: 181-183)

An example of this writing is the Sinaitic Codex (Codes Sinaiticus) dating to the mid-4th century A.D. (figure 15). The text is written in capitals. squared Greek writing, does not contain punctuation marks and spaces between words (Codex Sinaiticus). The width of the letters is almost as high as their height and exists strong contrast between vertical and horizontal lines - which proves that the tip of the reed was not under angular inclination of the writing surface. (Sigalas, 1974: 181-183)
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Steven Avery


Each rectangular page has the proportions 1.1 to 1, while the block of text has the reciprocal proportions, 0.91 (the same proportions, rotated 90°). If the gutters between the columns were removed, the text block would mirror the page's proportions. Typographer Robert Bringhurst referred to the codex as a "subtle piece of craftsmanship".[11]

Bringhurst, Robert (2000). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 3.0). Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. pp. 174–75. ISBN 0-88179-205-5..

copies Wikipedia
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Steven Avery

Márcio José Cenati
Marcio Jose Cenati

Introdução, tradução e notas.

lots on Sinaiticus


O tipógrafo e professor do Instituto de Tecnologia de Massachusetts nos Estados Unidos. Robert Bringhurst, se referiu ao Códice do Sinai como uma “peça sutil de artesanato” ao descrever que “cada página retangular tem a proporção de 1.1 para 1 enquanto o bloco de texto tem a proporção recíproca de 0,91 (a mesma proporção invertida, ou seja, 1 para 1.1). Se os espaços entre as colunas forem removidos, o bloco de texto ficaria com a mesma proporção da página” (BRINGHURST, 2004, pp. 174-175).74

The typographer and professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States. Robert Bringhurst referred to the Sinai Codex as a “subtle piece of craftsmanship” when describing that “each rectangular page has the ratio of 1.1 to 1 while the block of text has the reciprocal ratio of 0.91 (the same ratio inverted, i.e. 1 to 1.1). If the spaces between the columns were removed, the text block would have the same aspect ratio page” (BRINGHURST, 2004, pp. 174-175).74árcioCenati

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Steven Avery

p. 9-10
possibly the most important two pages from our Bulgarian writer





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Steven Avery


Angle of Inclination


This refers to the angle of inclination of the letters in relation to the base line of the writing: an angle above 90° means the writing inclines to the right of the axis of the letters, whereas below 90° (a fairly rare occurrence) means that it inclines to the left of the axis. This parameter can be useful when applied to the analysis of formal scripts (styles or canons) in which, as a distinguishing characteristic, there is an inclination of the axis of the letters (e.g. sloping pointed majuscule).


5 Sloping Pointed Majuscule

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Steven Avery

Scrivener Full Collation (1864)

1 As in Cod. Bezae, and most other of our old documents, the regularity of the writing is maintained by means of lines previously ruled on one side of the blank leaf, and easily seen through the vellum, the spaces having been accurately measured and noted with a needle or bodkin (acus).


RIGHT WE DIDN'T KNOW THEY looked thru the vellum but we know the lines etc